- Rod Swenson, (1989), Emergent Evolution and the Global Attractor: The Evolutionary Epistemology of Entropy Production Maximization
A system will select the path or assemblage of paths out of available paths that minimizes the potential or maximizes the entropy at the fastest rate given the constraints (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13).
"(T)he laws of thermodynamics", as Swenson (12) has stated, "are special laws that sit above the other laws of physics as laws about laws or laws on which the other laws depend."
a) THE FIRST LAW (the 'law of energy conservation') says that all real world processes involve transformations of energy and that the total amount of energy is always conserved. It expresses time-translation symmetry, without which there could be no other laws at all (12).
b) THE SECOND LAW ('the entropy principle') as understood classically by Clausius and Thomson captures the idea that the world is inherently active and whenever an energy distribution is out of equilibrium a gradient of a potential (or thermodynamic force) exists that the world acts to dissipate or minimize. Whereas the first law expresses that which remains the same, or time-symmetric, the second law expresses the fundamental broken symmetry, or time-assymetry of the world. Clausius coined the term "entropy" to refer to the dissipated potential, and the second law in its most general form thus states that the world acts spontaneously to minimize potentials (or equivalently maximize the entropy).(12)The active nature of the Second Law is intuitively easy to grasp and demonstrate. If a cup of hot liquid, for example is placed in a colder room a gradient of a potential exists and a flow of heat is spontaneously produced from the cup to the room until the potential is minimized or dissipated (the entropy is maximized) at which point the temperatures are the same and all flows stop (the cup/room system is 'in thermal equilibrium").
2. Swenson, R. (1989a). Emergent evolution and the global attractor: The evolutionary epistemology of entropy production maximization. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of The International Society for the Systems Sciences, P. Leddington (ed)., 33(3), 46-53.
3. Swenson, R. (1989b). Gauss-in-a-box: Nailing down the first principles of action. Perceiving Acting Workshop Review (Technical Report of the Center for the Ecological Study of Perception and Action) 5, 60-63.
4, Swenson, R. (1991a). End-directed physics and evolutionary ordering: Obviating the problem of the population of one. In The Cybernetics of Complex Systems: Self-Organization, Evolution, and Social Change, F. Geyer (ed.), 41-60. Salinas, CA: Intersystems Publications.
5, Swenson, R. (1991b). Order, evolution, and natural law: Fundamental relations in complex system theory. In Cybernetics and Applied Systems, C. Negoita (ed.), 125-148. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc.
6. Swenson, R. and Turvey, M.T. (1991). Thermodynamic reasons for perception-action cycles. Ecological Psychology, 3(4), 317-348. Translated and reprinted in Perspectives on Affordances, in M. Sasaki (ed.). Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1998 (in Japanese).
7. Swenson, R. (1997). Autocatakinetics, evolution, and the law of maximum entropy production: A principled foundation toward the study of human ecology. Advances in Human Ecology, 6, 1-46
8. Swenson, R. (1998a). Thermodynamics, evolution, and behavior. In The Handbook of Comparative Psychology, G. Greenberg and M. Haraway (eds.), Garland Publishing, New York.
9. Swenson, R. (1998c). Spontaneous order, evolution, and autocatakinetics: The nomological basis for the emergence of meaning. In Evolutionary Systems, G. van de Vijver, S. Salthe, and M. Delpos (eds.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.
10. Swenson, R. (1999). Epistemic ordering and the development of space-time: Intentionality as a universal entailment. Semiotica, Volume 127 - 1-4 , pp. 181-222.
11. Matsuno, K. & Swenson, R. (1999). Thermodynamics in the present progressive mode and it's role in the context of the origin of life. Biosystems.
12, Swenson, R. (2000). Spontaneous Order, Autocatakinetic Closure, and the Development of Space-Time. Annals New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 901, pp. 311-319, 2000.
13, Mahulikar, S.P, & Harwig, H. (2004), Conceptual investigation of the entropy principle for identification of directives for creation, existence and total destruction of order, Physica Scripta, Vol. 70, 212-221.